ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Effect of Axial Stresses of the Core on the Free Vibration Response of a Sandwich Beam with FG Carbon Nanotube Faces and Stiff and Flexible Cores
In this article, a vibrational behavior of sandwich beams with stiff and flexible cores and face sheets reinforced with carbon nanotubes is investigated. Carbon nanotubes are used as materials with properties varying along the thickness. In order to model the behavior of faces, the Timoshenko beam’s theory is employed and also for modeling the behavior of the core, three-dimensional elasticity is used. The axial stresses of the core are considered in this model and therefore it is suitable for modelling two types of stiff and flexible cores. The equations of motion are derived using the variations of energy, and the Navier method is used to solve the equations of motion. Results are presented for different volumes of carbon nanotubes with different distributions along the thickness of the faces. In the case of stiff core, results show that the FG-V distribution has the highest natural frequency and the FG-Λ distribution has the lowest natural frequency in all cases. For flexible core, the FG-X distribution leads to the highest natural frequency and also the FG-O distribution has the lowest natural frequency. Furthermore, results indicate that an extended high-order sandwich panel theory is a suitable model for analysis of stiff and flexible core sandwich panels. It must be mentioned for the cores made of stiff materials, the normal stress along the length of the core must be considered. It is due to the fact that the obtained results show that ignoring the normal stress along the length of the core leads to the large difference in the natural frequency of the system. In this article, due to the high order displacement field of the core, the flexibility of the core can be seen in the modeling. Additionally, since the term σc xx of the core is considered in the strain energy, a stiff core can be modeled. In many works the axial stresses of the core is removed from equations, therefore according to the results of sandwich beam with stiff core, lots of errors will be observed. Therefore, a proposed theory in this research can easily model a sandwich beam with two types of stiff and flexible cores. Since the Timoshenko beam theory is also implemented for modeling faces, different pattern of CNTs can be investigated accurately.
https://jrstan.basu.ac.ir/article_2664_e26c3bca812a3056ba75f5ff7d2cadb8.pdf
2019-03-01
1
14
10.22084/jrstan.2018.15538.1040
Vibration analysis
Sandwich beam
Stiff and flexible core
FG carbon nanotubes
Extended higher order theory
S.
Etehadi
s.etehadi71@gmail.com
1
Mechanical Engineering Department, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.
AUTHOR
M.
Botshekanan Dehkordi
mbd_dehkordi@yahoo.com
2
Mechanical Engineering Department, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] T.E. Lasy, Y. Hwang, Numerical modeling of impact damaged sandwich composites subjected to compression after impact loading, Compos. Struct., 61(1-2) (2003)115-128.
1
[2] K. E. Evans, The design of doubly curved sandwich panels with honeycomb cores, Compos. Struct., 17(2) (1991) 95-111.
2
[3] Y. Frostig, M. Baruch, O. Vilnay, I. Sheinman, Behavior of delaminated sandwich beam with transversely flexible core - high order theory, Compos. Struct., 20(1) (1992) 1-16.
3
[4] E.T. Thostenson, Z. Ren, T. W. Chou, Advances in the science and technology of carbon nanotubes and their composites, Compos. Sci. Technol., 61(13) (2001) 1899-1912.
4
[5] M. Meyyappan, Carbon Nanotubes Science & Applications, CRC Press, (2004).
5
[6] H.S. Shen, Y. Xiang, Nonlinear bending of nanotube reinforced composite cylindrical panels resting on elastic foundations in thermal environments, Eng. Struct., 80 (2014) 163-172.
6
[7] H. Wu, S. Kitipornchai and J. Yang, Free vibration and buckling analysis of sandwich beams with functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite face sheets, Int. J. Struct. Stabil. Dyn., 15 (2015) 1-17.
7
[8] R.K. Bhangale, N. Ganesan, Thermoplastic buckling and vibration behavior of a functionally graded sandwich beam with constrained viscoelastic core, J. Sound. Vib., 295(1-2) (2006) 294-316.
8
[9] H.S. Shen, Nonlinear bending of functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite plates in thermal environments. Compos. Struct., 91(1) (2009) 9-19.
9
[10] H.S. Shen, Z.H. Zhu, Post buckling of sandwich plates with nanotube-reinforced composite face sheets resting on elastic foundations, Eur. J. Mech. A. Solids., 35 (2012) 10-21.
10
[11] R. Ansari, E. Hasrati, M. Faghih Shojaei, R. Ghola, A. Shahabadini, Forced vibration analysis of functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite plates using a numerical strategy, Physica. E., 69 (2015) 294-305.
11
[12] L.L. Ke, J. Yang, S. Kitipornchai, Nonlinear free vibration of functionally graded carbon nanotubereinforced composite beams, Compos. Struct., 92(3) (2010) 676-683.
12
[13] Y. Frostig, Behavior of delaminated sandwich beam with transversely flexible core-high order theory, Compos. Struct., 20(1) (1992) 0-07.
13
[14] J.N. Reddy, Mechanics of laminated composite plates and shells: Theory and analysis, NewYork, Oxford University Press Inc, Ed2, (2003).
14
[15] H.S. Shen, Postbuckling of nanotube-reinforced composite cylindrical shells in thermalenvironments, Part I: axially-loaded shells, Compos. Struct., 93(8) (2011) 2096-2108.
15
[16] Z.X. Wang, J. Xu, P. Qjao, Nonlinear low velocity impact analysis of temperature dependent nanotube reinforced composite plates. Compos. Struct., 108 (2014) 423-434.
16
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Presentation of Calibration Coefficient to Measure NonUniform Residual Stresses by the Integral Ring-core Method
The aim of this paper is to compare incremental and integral techniques in non-uniform residual stress measurement by the ring-core method and to present a procedure to determine the calibration coefficients of the integral technique. The mathematical basis of the integral technique for use in the ring-core method is explained. To determine the calibration coefficients of the integral technique a 3D FE model was introduced and the calibration coefficients are also presented in separate tables. The FE analysis of the pure bending and ring-core method were used to show the effectiveness of the presented coefficients and compare the integral and incremental techniques. The results indicated that the calculated non-uniform residual stresses by the integral technique were closer to the real values in comparison with the incremental method. Moreover, it was observed that the accuracy of the results decreased by increasing the depth of the groove.
https://jrstan.basu.ac.ir/article_2665_df78f98d519150b19ff1b706bbc4f7fd.pdf
2019-03-01
15
28
10.22084/jrstan.2019.17330.1069
Residual stress
Non-uniform
Ring-core
Calibration coefficient
Integral
Incremental
M.A.
Moazam
ma.moazam@grad.kashanu.ac.ir
1
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran.
AUTHOR
M.
Honarpisheh
honarpishe@kashanu.ac.ir
2
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] M. Sedighi, M. Honarpisheh, Investigation of cold rolling influence on near surface residual stress distribution in explosive welded multilayer, Strength. Mater., 44(6) (2012) 693-698.
1
[2] M. Sedighi, M. Honarpisheh, Experimental study of through-depth residual stress in explosive welded Al-Cu-Al multilayer, Mater. Des., 37 (2012) 577-581.
2
[3] M. Honarpisheh, V. Zandian, Investigation of residual stresses in stress-relieved samples by heat treatment and ultrasonic methods using hole-drilling method, Modares Mechanical Engineering, 14(15) (2015) 273-278.
3
[4] M. Barsanti, M. Beghini, C. Santus, A. Benincasa, L. Bertelli, Integral method coefficients for the ringcore technique to evaluate non-uniform residual stresses, J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des., 53(4) (2018) 210-224.
4
[5] R. Paynter, A.H. Mahmoudi, M.J. Pavier, D.A. Hills, D. Nowell, C.E. Truman, D.J. Smith, Residual stress measurement by deep hole drilling and trepanning–analysis with distributed dislocations, J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des., 44(1) (2009) 45-54.
5
[6] M. Honarpisheh, E. Haghighat, M. Kotobi, Investigation of residual stress and mechanical properties of equal channel angular rolled St12 strips. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part L: J. Mater. Des. App., 232(10) (2018) 841-851.
6
[7] M. Kotobi, M. Honarpisheh, Through-depth residual stress measurement of laser bent steel–titanium bimetal sheets, J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des., 53(3) (2018) 130-140.
7
[8] M. Kotobi, M. Honarpisheh, Experimental and numerical investigation of through-thickness residual stress of laser-bent Ti samples. J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des., 52(6) (2017) 347-355.
8
[9] M. Kotobi, M. Honarpisheh, Uncertainty analysis of residual stresses measured by slitting method in equal-channel angular rolled Al-1060 strips, J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des., 52(2) (2017) 83-92.
9
[10] I. Alinaghian, M. Honarpisheh, S. Amini, The influence of bending mode ultrasonic-assisted friction stir welding of Al-6061-T6 alloy on residual stress, welding force and macrostructure, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 95(5-8) (2018) 2757-2766.
10
[11] I. Alinaghian, S. Amini, M. Honarpisheh, Residual stress, tensile strength, and macrostructure investigations on ultrasonic assisted friction stir welding of AA 6061-T6, J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des., 53(7) (2018) 494-503.
11
[12] M. Honarpisheh, H. Khanlari, A numerical study on the residual stress measurement accuracy using inverse eigenstrain method, J. Stress. Anal., 2(2) (2018) 1-11.
12
[13] O. Václavík, P. Weinberg, J. Bohdan, S. Jankovec, S. Holý, Evaluation of residual stresses using ring core method, 14th international conference on experimental mechanics, Poitiers, France, Edited by Fabrice Brémand; EPJ Web of Conferences, 6 (2010) id.44004-p.1-6.
13
[14] S. Keil, Experimental determination of residual stresses with the ring-core method and an on-line measuring, Exp. Tech., 16(5) (1992) 17-24.
14
[15] F. Menda, P. Sarga, F. Trebuna, Estimation of residual stress field uniformity when using the ringcore method, Adv. Mater. Res., 996 (2014) 325-330.
15
[16] F. Menda, F. Trebuňa, P. Šarga, Determination of the necessary geometric parameters of the specimen in Ring-Core method, Appl. Mech. Mater., 486 (2014) 90-95.
16
[17] C. Bouffioux, R. Pesci, R. Boman, N. Caillet, J. Ponthot, A. Habraken, Comparison of residual stresses on long rolled profiles measured by X-ray diffraction, ring-core and the sectioning methods and simulated by FE method, Thin Walled Struct., 104 (2016) 126-134.
17
[18] A. Civ’ın, M. Vlk, Determination of principal residual stresses’ directions by incremental strain method, Appl. Comput. Mech., 5 (2011) 5-14.
18
[19] M. Moazam, M. Honarpisheh, Residual stresses measurement in UIC 60 rail by ring-core method and sectioning technique, AUT J. Mech. Eng., 2(1) (2018) 99-106.
19
[20] E. Valentini, A. Benincasaa, L. Bertelli, An automatic system for measuring residual stresses by the ring-core method, Italian stress analysis association 40th national convention, Uinversity of Palermo, (2011).
20
[21] A. Ajovalasit, G. Petrucci, B. Zuccarello, Determination of nonuniform residual stresses using the ring-core method, J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 118(2) (1996) 224-228.
21
[22] M. Moazam, M. Honarpisheh, Experimental and numerical study on the accuracy residual stress measurement by incremental ring-core method, AUT J. Mech. Eng., 2(2) (2018) 137-148.
22
[23] G. Montay, A. Cherouat, J. Lu, N. Baradel, L. Bianchi, Development of the high-precision incremental-step hole-drilling method for the study of residual stress in multi-layer materials: influence of temperature and substrate on ZrO2–Y2O3 8 wt.% coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., 155(2-3) (2002) 152-160.
23
[24] B. Zuccarello, F. Menda, M. Scafidi, Error and uncertainty analysis of non-uniform residual stress evaluation by using the ring-core method, Exp. Mech., 56(9) (2016) 1531-1546.
24
[25] R. Ghaedamini, A. Ghassemi, A. Atrian, Ringcore method in determining the amount of nonuniform residual stress in laminated composites: experimental, finite elements and theoretical evaluation, A. Arch. Appl. Mech., 88(5) (2018) 755-767.
25
[26] H. Wern, A new approach to triaxial residual stress evaluation by the hole drilling method, Strain, 33(4) (1997) 121-126.
26
[27] R. Moharrami, M. Sadri, A procedure for high residual stresses measurement using the ring‐core method, Strain, 54(4) (2018) 1-11.
27
[28] H. Wern, Measurement of non‐uniform residual stresses using the hole drilling method, a new integral formalism, Strain, 31(2) (1995) 63-68.
28
[29] ASTM E837 - 13a. Standard Test Method for Determining Residual Stresses by the Hole-Drilling Strain-Gage Method (2013).
29
[30] G.S. Schajer, Measurement of Non-uniform residual stresses using the hole drilling method, J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 110(4) (1988) 338-343.
30
[31] G.S. Schajer, Measurement of non-uniform residual stresses using the hole drilling method. Part II: practical application of the integral method, J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 110(4) (1988) 344-349.
31
[32] ABAQUS Analysis Users Manual, Version 6.14-2 (2014) Dassault Systems Simulia Corp. RI, USA.
32
[33] Tokyo Sokki Kenkyujo Co, Ltd., TML Strain gage cataloge, http://www.tml.jp/e.
33
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Analytical and Numerical Study of the Swelling Behavior in Functionally Graded Temperature-sensitive Hydrogel Shell
In this article, analytical and numerical methods were employed to study swelling behavior of a cylindrical shell made of a functionally graded temperature sensitive hydrogel. The hydrogel shell has gradient property in radial direction. The shell cross-linking density is a linear function of the radial coordinate of the FGM shell. The analytical model was first developed for the hydrogel shell and a second order differential equation was derived which can be solved by numerical methods. Then, finite element solution of the under-study functionally graded hydrogel shell was performed by implementing the material model in ABAQUS software and by writing a user-defined subroutine. In this regard, the functionally graded hydrogel shell was modeled as multi-layered shell with discrete material properties. A good agreement between the analytical results and numerical simulation was observed and validity of analytical solution was confirmed. Thereafter, analytical model was employed to study the swelling behavior of functionally graded shell for different thickness ratios of the shell.
https://jrstan.basu.ac.ir/article_2666_095746739762dbb62c59e08cdd8035d2.pdf
2019-03-01
29
35
10.22084/jrstan.2019.18220.1083
Temperature sensitive hydrogel
Analytical solution
Finite element method
Micro-valve
Functionally graded hydrogel
H.
Mazaheri
h.mazaheri@basu.ac.ir
1
Mechanical Engineering Department, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
A.
Ghasemkhani
amir.ghasemkhani1993@gmail.com
2
Mechanical Engineering Department, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.
AUTHOR
[1] R. Marcombe, S. Cai, W. Hong, X. Zhao, Y. Lapusta, Z. Suo, A theory of constrained swelling of a pH-sensitive hydrogel, Soft Mater., 6(4) (2010) 784-793.
1
[2] N. Arbabi, M. Baghani, J. Abdolahi, H. Mazaheri, M.M. Mashhadi, Finite bending of bilayer pH-responsive hydrogels: A novel analytic method and finite element analysis, Compos. Part B Eng., 110(1) (2017) 116-123.
2
[3] T. Morimoto, F. Ashida, Temperature-responsive bending of a bilayer gel, Int. J. Solids Struct., (56-57) (2015) 20-28.
3
[4] J. Abdolahi, M. Baghani, N. Arbabi, H. Mazaheri, Finite bending of a temperature-sensitive hydrogel tri-layer: An analytical and finite element analysis, Compos. Struct., 164 (2017) 219-228.
4
[5] W. Toh, T.Y. Ng, J. Hu, Z. Liu, Mechanics of inhomogeneous large deformation of photo-thermal sensitive hydrogels, Int. J. Solids Struct., 51(25-26) (2014) 4440-4451.
5
[6] A. Kargar-Estahbanaty, M. Baghani, N. Arbabi, Developing an analytical solution for photosensitive hydrogel bilayers, J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 29(9) (2018) 1953-1963.
6
[7] D.J. Beebe, J.S. Moore, J.M. Bauer, Q. Yu, R.H. Liu, C. Devadoss, B.H. Jo, Functional hydrogel structures for autonomous flow control inside microfluidic channels, Nature, 404(6778) (2000) 588-590.
7
[8] A. Richter, G. Paschew, S. Klatt, J. Lienig, K.F. Arndt, H.P. Adler, Review on hydrogel-based pH sensors and microsensors, Sensors, 8(1) (2008) 561-581.
8
[9] K. Deligkaris, T.S. Tadele, W. Olthuis, A. van den Berg, Hydrogel-based devices for biomedical applications, Sens. Actuators. B: Chemical., 147(2) (2010) 765-774.
9
[10] W. Hong, X. Zhao, J. Zhou, Z. Suo, A theory of coupled diffusion and large deformation in polymeric gels, J. Mech. Phys. Solids., 56(5) (2008) 1779-1793.
10
[11] S.A. Chester, L. Anand, A thermo-mechanically coupled theory for fluid permeation in elastomeric materials: Application to thermally responsive gels, J. Mech. Phys. Solids., 59(10) (2011) 1978-2006.
11
[12] S.A. Chester, C.V. Di Leo, L. Anand, A finite element implementation of a coupled diffusion-deformation theory for elastomeric gels, Int. J. Solid. Struct., 52 (2015) 1-18.
12
[13] S. Cai, Z. Suo, Mechanics and chemical thermodynamics of phase transition in temperature-sensitive hydrogels, J. Mech. Phys. Solids., 59(11) (2011) 2259-2278.
13
[14] H. Mazaheri, M. Baghani, R. Naghdabadi, Inhomogeneous and homogeneous swelling behavior of temperature-sensitive poly-(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogels, J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 27(3) (2016) 324-336.
14
[15] H. Mazaheri, Study of swelling behavior of temperature sensitive hydrogels considering inextensibility of network, Scientia Iranica, (2018) Doi: 10.24200/SCI.2018.5266.1181.
15
[16] D. Kim, D.J. Beebe, A bi-polymer micro one-way valve, Sens. Actuators. A: Physical., 136(1) (2007) 426-433.
16
[17] T. He, M. Li, J. Zhou, Modeling deformation and contacts of pH sensitive hydrogels for microfluidic flow control, Soft. Mater., 8(11) (2012) 3083-3089.
17
[18] H. Mazaheri, M. Baghani, R. Naghdabadi, S. Sohrabpour, Inhomogeneous swelling behavior of temperature sensitive PNIPAM hydrogels in microvalves: analytical and numerical study, Smart Mater. Struct., 24(4) (2015) 045004.
18
[19] N. Arbabi, M. Baghani, J. Abdolahi, H. Mazaheri, and M. Mosavi-Mashhadi, Study on pH-sensitive hydrogel micro-valves: A fluid–structure interaction approach, J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 28(12) (2016) 1589-1602.
19
[20] H. Mazaheri, A. Namdar, A. Amiri, Behavior of a smart one-way micro-valve considering fluid–structure interaction, J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 29(20) (2018) 3960-3971.
20
[21] F. Afroze, E. Nies, H. Berghmans, Phase transitions in the system poly (N-isopropylacrylamide)/water and swelling behaviour of the corresponding networks, J. Mol. Struct., 554(1) (2000) 55-68.
21
[22] W., Hong, Z. Liu, and Z. Suo, Inhomogeneous swelling of a gel in equilibrium with a solvent and mechanical load, Int. J. Solids Struct., 46(17) (2009) 3282-3289.
22
[23] U.M. Ascher, R.M.M. Mattheij, R.D. Russell, Numerical Solution of Boundary Value Problems for Ordinary Differential Equations, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics Publisher, (1994).
23
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Failure Study of Hybrid Bonded-bolted Composite Single and Double Lap Joints
In this paper by employing ANSYS Workbench software and three-dimensional finite element simulation, failure analysis of hybrid bonded and bolted single and double lap joints with laminated composite adherends subjected to axial, shear and bending loads were performed. In order to select an appropriate and optimized element number, the convergence behavior of single and double lap joints were investigated. Then the failure study of each single and double lap hybrid composite joints for the three time dependent loading cases were performed. To demonstrate the validity and precision of the presented simulations, the obtained results were compared with the results presented in the available literatures. The results of this research indicated that, in the single lap joint subjected to axial load, the replacement of hybrid bonded bolted joint instead of adhesive joint leads to significant increase of 56% in the load bearing capacity of the joint.
https://jrstan.basu.ac.ir/article_2667_65eb86dcecd36534bb489ade6907defc.pdf
2019-03-01
37
46
10.22084/jrstan.2019.17471.1072
Failure
Composite
Hybrid joint
Adherend
Adhesive
Bolt
E.
Selahi
selahi@miau.ac.ir
1
Mechanical Engineering Department, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] C.T. Sun, B. Kumar, P. Wang, R.D. Sterkenburg, Development of improved hybrid joints for composite structures, Purdue University, USA, 1-20.
1
[2] O. Volkersen, Die nietkraftverteilung in zugbeanspruchten niet ver bindungen mit konstanten lashenquers chnitten, Luftfahrt-Forschung., 15 (1938) 41-47.
2
[3] L.J. Hart-Smith, Adhesive bonded scarf and stepped lap joints, Douglas Aircraft Company, NASA, USA, CR 112235 (1973) 1-115.
3
[4] L.J. Hart-Smith, Adhesive bonded single lap joints, Douglas Aircraft Company, NASA, USA, CR 112236 (1973) 1-123.
4
[5] L.J. Hart-Smith, Adhesive bonded double lap joints, Douglas Aircraft Company, NASA, USA, CR 112237 (1973) 1-105.
5
[6] R.D. Adams, J. Coppendale, N.A. Peppiatt, Failure analysis of aluminum-aluminum bonded joints, J. Adhes. Appl. Sci., London, 2 (1978) 105-119.
6
[7] J.A. Harris, R.A. Adams, Strength prediction of bonded single lap joints by non-linear finite elements methods, Int. J. Adhes. Adhes., 4(2) (1984) 65-78.
7
[8] A.E. Bogdanovich I. Kizhakkethara, Three dimensional finite element of double lap composite adhesive bonded joint using submodeling approach, Compos. Part B: Eng., 30(6) (1999) 537-551.
8
[9] Y.A. Bahei-El-Din, G.J. Dvorak, New design of adhesive joints for thick composite laminates, Compos. Sci. Technol., 61(1) (2001) 19-40.
9
[10] F. Mortensen, O.T. Thomsen, Analysis of adhesive bonded joints: a unified approach, Compos. Sci. Technol., 62(7-8) (2002) 1011-1031.
10
[11] E. Selahi, M. Tahani S.A. Yousefsani, Analytical solutions of stress field in adhesively bonded composite single-lap joints under mechanical loadings, Int. J. Eng., 27(3) (2014) 475-486.
11
[12] E. Selahi, M.H. Kadivar, Non-linear analysis of adhesive joints in composite structures, Int. J. Advan Des. Manuf. Technol., 9(1) (2016) 101-110.
12
[13] E. Selahi, Elasticity solution of adhesive tubular joints in laminated composites, with axial symmetry, Arch. Mech. Eng., 3 (2018) 441-456.
13
[14] W.S. Chan, S. Vedhagiri, Analysis of composite bonded/bolted joints used in repairing, J. Compos. Mater., 35(12) (2001) 1045-1061.
14
[15] G. Kelly, Load transfer in hybrid (bonded/bolted) composite single-lap joints, Compos. Struct., 69(1) (2005) 35-43.
15
[16] K. Ding, M. Dhanasekar, Flexural behaviour of bonded-bolted butt joints due to bolt looseness, Adv. Eng. Softw., 38(8-9) (2007) 598-606.
16
[17] R. Matsuzaki, M. Shibata, A. Todoroki, 2008, Improving performance of GFRP/aluminum singlelap joints using bolted/co-cured hybrid method, Compos. Part A: Appl. Sci. Manuf., 39(2) (2008) 154-163.
17
[18] A. Barut, E. Madenc, Analysis of bolted–bonded composite single-lap joints under combined inplane and transverse loading, Compos. Struct., 88(4) (2009) 579-594.
18
[19] C.T. Hoang-Ngoc, E. Paroissien, Simulation of single-lap bonded and hybrid (bolted/bonded) joints with flexible adhesive, Int. J. Adhes. Adhes., 30(3) (2010) 117-129.
19
[20] N. Duc Hai, H. Mutsuyoshi, Structural behavior of double-lap joints of steel splice plates bolted/bonded to pultruded hybrid CFRP/GFRP laminates, Constr. Build. Mater., 30 (2012) 347-359.
20
[21] S. Venkateswarlu, K. Rajasekhar, Modelling and analysis of hybrid composite joint using FEM in Ansys, IOSR J. Mech. Civ. Eng., 6(6) (2013) 1-6.
21
[22] K. Bodjona, K. Raju, G.H. Lim, L. Lessard, Load sharing in single-lap bonded/bolted composite joints, Part I: Model development and validation, Compos. Struct., 129 (2015) 268-275.
22
[23] Composite materials engineering data, ANSYS Workbench V. 16, ANSYS Incorporation (2014).
23
[24] Nonlinear contact analysis techniques using ANSYS, Mechanics Development Group, ANSYS Incorporation.
24
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
An Analytical Approach to Design of Ultrasonic Transducers Considering Lateral Vibrations
The purpose of this paper is to develop a design procedure for Langevin ultrasonic transducers with lateral dimensions larger than a quarter of the longitudinal wave length. In this case, the assumption of the one-dimensional design is not valid, and this method cannot predict the experimental resonance frequency. Some researchers have considered radial and longitudinal normal stresses by means of the apparent elasticity method and reduced the error between the design and experimental resonance frequency. In this research, 3D normal stresses of a transducer’s components i.e. longitudinal, radial and circumferential were considered in the design procedure. The apparent elasticity method was used to modify the elastic modulus and the wave numbers of the transducer‘s components. Resonance lengths of the components were then calculated using the modified values. The design resonance frequency of the transducer was 20kHz. The experimental resonance frequency was measured as 19810Hz. The error of 0.95% between analytical and experimental results showed that the new design procedure can fairly estimate the resonance frequency of the transducer.
https://jrstan.basu.ac.ir/article_2668_b1166c1911556d724d9b83b11a729583.pdf
2019-03-01
47
58
10.22084/jrstan.2019.16120.1047
Langevin ultrasonic transducer
3D vibrations
Piezoelectric
Resonance frequency
Apparent elasticity method
M.R.
Karafi
karafi@modares.ac.ir
1
Mechanical Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
S.A.
Mirshabani
sayed_ali13@yahoo.com
2
Mechanical Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
AUTHOR
[1] U.S. Bhirud, P.R. Gogate, A.M. Wilhelm, A.B. Panlit, Ultrasonic bath with longitudinal vibrations: A novel configuration for efficient wastewater treatment, Ultrason. Sonochem., 11(3-4) (2004) 143-147.
1
[2] B. Verhaagen, T. Zanderink, D.F. Rivas, Ultrasonic cleaning of 3D printed objects and cleaning challenge devices, Appl. Acoust., 10 (2016) 172-181.
2
[3] A. Benatar, Ultrasonic welding of plastics and polymeric composites, Power Ultrasonics, Woodhead Publisher, (2015).
3
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18
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Mixed Elastic Modeling of Multilayer Composite Plates by Using Dimension Reduction Approach
In this paper, a mixed modeling approach for orthotropic laminated plates is developed. By adopting Hellinger-Reissner functional and dimension reduction method along the thickness, the governing equations were derived. By considering other theories i.e. classical plate theory, first order shear deformation theory and elasticity theory, the advantages of the current work are illustrated with some numerical results. Excellent agreements were observed by comparing the obtained results with three-dimensional elasticity theory for laminated thick plates. In the presented method, shear correction factor was not required for considering shear strain components. Furthermore, finite element simulation was implemented in Abaqus software by using two-dimensional shell elements and compared with obtained results. It is seen that although finite element model predicts good results for displacement field but it cannot provide any suitable results in thickness direction.
https://jrstan.basu.ac.ir/article_2669_7982077eb0c54586b46fae2d08758207.pdf
2019-03-01
59
68
10.22084/jrstan.2019.17217.1063
Mixed variational formulation
Hellinger-Reissner principal
Linear elastic
Laminated plate
Elastic analysis
M.J.
Khoshgoftar
mj.khoshgoftar@gmail.com
1
Mechanical Engineering Department, Arak University, Arak, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
M.
Shaban
m.shaban@basu.ac.ir
2
Mechanical Engineering Department, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran
AUTHOR
[1] R. Khandan, S. Noroozi, P. Sewell, J. Vinney, The development of laminated composite plate theories: a review, J. Mater. Sci., 47(16) (2012) 5901-5910.
1
[2] J.N. Reddy, J. Kim, A nonlinear modified couple stress-based third-order theory of functionally graded plates, Compos. Struct., 94(3) (2012) 1128-1143.
2
[3] N.J. Pagano, Exact solutions for rectangular bidirectional composites and sandwich plates, J. Compos. Mater., 4(1) (1970) 20-34.
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[4] E. Reissner, On a mixed variational theorem and on shear deformable plate theory, Int. J. Numer. Meth. Eng., 23(2) (1986) 193-198.
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[5] S.M. Alessandrini, D.N. Arnold, R.S. Falk, A.L. Madureira, Derivation and justification of plate models by variational methods, Plates and Shells, (1999) 1-21.
5
[6] W. Chih-Ping, L. Hao-Yuan, The RMVT-and PVD-based finite layer methods for the threedimensional analysis of multilayered composite and FGM plates, Compos. Struct., 92(10) (2010) 2476-2496.
6
[7] C.P. Wu, H.Y. Li, An RMVT-based third-order shear deformation theory of multilayered functionally graded material plates, Compos. Struct., 92(10) (2010) 2591-2605.
7
[8] E. Carrera, An assessment of mixed and classical theories on global and local response of multilayered orthotropic plates, Compos. Struct., 50(2) (2000) 183-198.
8
[9] L. Demasi, ∞6 mixed plate theories based on the generalized unified formulation, Part I: Governing equations, Compos. Struct., 87(1) (2009) 1-11.
9
[10] L. Demasi, ∞6 Mixed plate theories based on the generalized unified formulation, Part II: Layerwise theories, Compos. Struct., 87(1) (2009): 12-22.
10
[11] L. Demasi, ∞6 Mixed plate theories based on the generalized unified formulation, Part III: Advanced mixed high order shear deformation theories, Compos. Struct., 87(3) (2009) 183-194.
11
[12] L. Demasi, ∞6 Mixed plate theories based on the generalized unified formulation, Part IV: Zig-zag theories, Compos. Struct., 87(3) (2009) 195-205.
12
[13] L. Demasi, ∞6 Mixed plate theories based on the Generalized Unified Formulation, Part V: Results. Compos. Struct., 88(1) (2009) 1-16.
13
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[15] K.M. Liu, Dimensional reduction for the plate in elasticity on an unbounded domain, Math. Comput. Modell., 30(5-6) (1999) 1-22.
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[16] F. Auricchio, E. Sacco, A mixed enhanced finite‐element for the analysis of laminated composite plates, Int. J. Numer. Meth. Eng., 44(10) (1999) 1481-1504.
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[17] F. Daghia, S. De Miranda, F. Ubertini, E. Viola, A hybrid stress approach for laminated composite plates within the first-order shear deformation theory, Int. J. Solids Struct., 45(6) (2008) 1766-1787.
17
[18] F. Moleiro, C.M. Mota Soares, C.A. Mota Soares, J.N. Reddy, A layerwise mixed least-squares finite element model for static analysis of multilayered composite plates, Comput. Struct., 89(19-20) (2011) 1730-1742.
18
[19] F. Auricchio, G. Balduzzi, C. Lovadina, A new modeling approach for planar beams: finiteelement solutions based on mixed variational derivations, Int. J. Mater. Struct., 5(5) (2010) 771-794.
19
[20] F. Auricchio, B. Giuseppe, C. Lovadina, The dimensional reduction modelling approach for 3D beams: Differential equations and finite-element solutions based on Hellinger–Reissner principle, Int. J. Solids Struct., 50(25-26) (2013) 4184-4196.
20
[21] M. D’Ottavio, A Sublaminate Generalized Unified Formulation for the analysis of composite structures, Compos. Struct., 142 (2016) 187-199.
21
[22] M. Arefi, M. Kiani, A.M. Zenkour, Size-dependent free vibration analysis of a three-layered exponentially graded nano-/micro-plate with piezomagnetic face sheets resting on Pasternak’s foundation via MCST, J. Sandwich Struct. Mater., (2017) 1099636217734279.
22
[23] M. Arefi, A.M. Zenkour, Size-dependent electroelastic analysis of a sandwich microbeam based on higher-order sinusoidal shear deformation theory and strain gradient theory, Int. J. Solids Struct., 29(7) (2018) 1394-1406.
23
[24] M.L. Ribeiro, G.F.O. Ferreira, R. De Medeiros, A.J.M. Ferreira, V. Tita, Experimental and numerical dynamic analysis of laminate plates via carrera unified formulation, Compos. Struct., 202 (2018) 1176-1185.
24
[25] J.N. Reddy, Mechanics of Laminated Composite Plates and Shells: Theory and Analysis, CRC press, (2004).
25
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Investigation of Hot-extrusion Effect on Microhardness, Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Magnesium-based Bio-composites
Magnesium alloys are a unique choicefor orthopedic implants due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability properties. In this article, the impact of hot-extrusion process is investigated on microhardness, microstructure, and corrosion behavior of magnesium/2.5wt% hydroxyapatite (HA) rods as a bio-composite. Hot extrusion process was implemented on the as-cast samples in two different steps resulting two various total extrusion ratios of 5:1 and 20:1. The corrosion susceptibility of the extruded composites was studied by polarization test in simulated body fluid (SBF) as a corrosive environment. According to the results, adding hydroxyapatite reinforcing particles and applying higher extrusion ratios caused grain refinement in the matrix comparing to the pure magnesium. Moreover, while the hardness of the pure magnesium sample decreased slightly after the second extrusion pass, it was enhanced in the composite specimens. Besides, both extrusion ratio and reinforcing particles had direct effects on the corrosion behavior, so that with the presence of HA particles and applying the higher extrusion ratio, the corrosion resistance of the samples was improved.
https://jrstan.basu.ac.ir/article_2670_c8aa6f8468c3652685e0f6dd4f9fcd0b.pdf
2019-03-01
69
73
10.22084/jrstan.2019.17307.1068
Magnesium/Hydroxyapatite
Bio-composites
Hot-extrusion
Microstructure
Microhardness
Corrosion properties
E.
Ghazizadeh
emad_ghazizadeh@mecheng.iust.ac.ir
1
School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.
AUTHOR
A.H.
Jabbari Mostahsan
a_jabbari@mecheng.iust.ac.ir
2
School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.
AUTHOR
M.
Sedighi
sedighi@iust.ac.ir
3
School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] F. Witte, F. Feyerabend, P. Maier, J. Fischer, M. Störmer, C. Blawert, W. Dietzel, N. Hort, Biodegradable magnesium-hydroxyapatite metal matrix composites, Biomaterials, 28(13) (2007) 2163-2174.
1
[2] M. Gui, P. Li, J. Han, Fabrication and characterization of cast magnesium matrix composites by vacuum stir casting process, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 12(2) (2003) 128-134.
2
[3] M. Haghshenas, Mechanical characteristics of biodegradable magnesium matrix composites: A review, J. Magnesium Alloys, 5(2) (2017) 189-201.
3
[4] X. Gu, W. Zhou, Y. Zheng, L. Dong, Yulin Xi, D. Chai, Microstructure, mechanical property, biocorrosion and cytotoxicity evaluations of Mg/HA composites, J. Mater. Sci. Eng., 30(6) (2010) 827-832.
4
[5] M.T. Fulmer, I.C. Ison, C.R. Hankermayer, B.R. Constantz, J. Ross, Measurements of the solubilities and dissolution rates of several hydroxyapatites, Biomaterials, 23(3) (2002) 751-755.
5
[6] D. Tadic, M. Epple, A thorough physicochemical characterisation of 14 calcium phosphate-based bone substitution materials in comparison to natural bone, Biomaterials, 25(6) (2004) 987-994.
6
[7] N. Omidi, A.H. Jabbari, M. Sedighi, Mechanical and microstructural properties of titanium/hydroxyapatite functionally graded material fabricated by spark plasma sintering, J. Powder. Metall., 61(5) (2018) 417-427.
7
[8] A. Shafiee, A.H. Jabbari, M. Sedighi, Fabrication of magnesium/hydroxyapatite bio-composite using stir casting method. In 5th International Conference on Composites: Characterization, Fabrication and Application (CCFA-5), Tehran, Dec. (2016).
8
[9] Y. Chen, Q. Wang, J. Peng, C. Zhai, W. Ding, Effects of extrusion ratio on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ31 Mg alloy, J. Mate. Process. Technol., 182(1-3) (2007) 281-285.
9
[10] K.D. Ralston, N. Birbilis, Effect of grain size on corrosion: A review, Corrosion, 66(7) (2010) 075005-1-13.
10
[11] A. Bakkar, V. Neubert, Corrosion characterisation of alumina-magnesium metal matrix composites, J. Corros. Sci., 49(3) (2007) 1110-1130.
11
[12] A.S. Sabet, A.H. Jabbari, M. Sedighi, Microstructural properties and mechanical behavior of magnesium/hydroxyapatite biocomposite under static and high cycle fatigue loading, J. Compos. Mater., 52(13) (2018) 1711-1722.
12
[13] A.K. Khanra, H.C. Jung, S.H. Yu, K.S. Hong, K.S. Shin, Microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-HAP composites, Bull. Mater. Sci., 33(1) (2010) 43-47.
13
[14] T. Kokubo, H. Takadama, How useful is SBF in predicting invivo bone bioactivity, Biomaterials, 27(15) (2006) 2907-2915.
14
[15] M.J. Shen, X.J. Wang, T. Ying, K. Wu, W.J. Song, Characteristics and mechanical properties of magnesium matrix composites reinforced with micron/submicron/nano Sic particles, J. Alloys Compd., 686 (2016) 831-840.
15
[16] X.J. Wang, L.Xu, X.S. Hu, K.B. Nie, K.K. Deng,
16
K. Wu, M.Y. Zheng, Influences of extrusion parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of particulate reinforced magnesium matrix composites, Mater. Sci. Eng., 528(21) (2011) 6387- 6392.
17
[17] G.R. Argade, S.K. Panigrahi, R.S. Mishra, Effects of grain size on the corrosion resistance of wrought magnesium alloys containing neodymium, Corros. Sci., 58 (2012) 145-151.
18
[18] R. Del Campo, B. Savoini, A. Muñoz, M.A. Monge, G. Garcés, Mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of Mg-HAP composites, J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater., 39 (2014) 238-246.
19
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
The Effect of Grading Index on Two-dimensional Stress and Strain Distribution of FG Rotating Cylinder Resting on a Friction Bed Under Thermomechanical Loading
This paper presents two-dimensional stress and strain behavior of a FG rotating cylindrical shell subjected to internal-external pressure, surface shear stresses due to friction, an external torque, and constant temperature field. A power law distribution was considered for thermomechanical material properties. First order shear deformation theory (FSDT) was used to define the displacement and deformation field. Energy method and Euler equation were employed to derive constitutive differential equations of the rotating shell. Systems of Six differential equations were achieved. Eigenvalue and eigenvector methods were used to solve these equations. It was found that the material grading index has a significant effect on stresses and strains of a rotating functionally graded material cylindrical shell in radial and longitudinal directions.
https://jrstan.basu.ac.ir/article_2671_e37f0c82fc6b0f080935fde1f82ee786.pdf
2019-03-01
75
82
10.22084/jrstan.2019.17619.1073
Grading index
FG rotating cylinder
Stress and strain
Thermomechanical loading
Friction bed
M.
Omidi bidgoli
mostafaomidibidgoli@gmail.com
1
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Iran.
AUTHOR
A.
Loghman
aloghman@kashanu.ac.ir
2
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Iran. .
LEAD_AUTHOR
M.
Arefi
arefi@kashanu.ac.ir
3
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Iran.
AUTHOR
[1] M.B. Bever, P.E. Duwez, Gradients in composite materials, J. Mater. Sci. Eng., 10 (1972) 1-8.
1
[2] M.S. EL-Wazery, A.R. EL-Desouky, A review on functionally graded ceramic-metal materials, Mater. Environ. Sci., 6 (2015) 1369-1376.
2
[3] Y. Miyamoto, W.A. Kaysser, B.H. Rabin, A. Kawasaki, R.G. Ford, Functionally Graded Materials: Design, Processing and Applications, Springer Publisher, (1999).
3
[4] A. Alibeigloo, A.M. Kani, M.H. Pashaei, Elasticity solution for the free vibration analysis of functionally graded cylindrical shell bonded to thin piezoelectric layers, Int. J. Press. Vessels Pip., 89 (2012) 98-111.
4
[5] A. Loghman, M.A. Wahab, Thermoelastoplastic and residual stresses in thick walled cylindrical pressure vessels of strain hardening material, Adv. Eng. Plast. Appl., (1993) 843-850.
5
[6] C.O. Horgan, A.M. Chan, The pressurized hollow cylinder or disk problem for functionally graded isotropic linearly elastic material, J. Elast. 55(1) (1999) 43-59.
6
[7] M. Moradi, A. Ghorbanpour, H. Khademizadeh, A. Loghman, Reverse yielding and bauschinger effect on residual stresses in thick-walled cylinders, Pakistan J. Appl. Sci., (2001) 44-51.
7
[8] N. Tutuncu, M. Ozturk, Exact solution for stresses in functionally graded pressure vessels, Compos. Part B: Eng., 32(8) (2001) 683-686.
8
[9] A. Ghorbanpour Arani, A. Loghman, H. Khademizadeh, M. Moradi, The bauschinger and hardening effect on residual stresses in thick-walled cylinders of SUS 304, Trans. Can. Soc. Mech. Eng., 26(4) (2003) 361-372.
9
[10] H. Argeso, A.N. Eraslan, A computational study on functionally graded rotating solid shafts, Int. J. Comput. Methods Eng. Sci. Mech., 8(6) (2007) 391-399.
10
[11] M. Zamani Nejad, G.H. Rahimi, Deformations and stresses in rotating FGM pressurized thick hollow cylinder under thermal load, Sci. Res. Essay, 4(3) (2009) 131-140.
11
[12] N. Tutuncu, B. Temel, A novel approach to stress analysis of pressurized FGM cylinders, Disks and Spheres, Compos. Struct., 91(3) (2009) 385-390.
12
[13] H.R. Eipakchi, Third-order shear deformation theory for stress analysis of a thick conical shell under pressure, J. Mech. Mater. Struct., 5(1) (2010) 1-17.
13
[14] A. Ozturk, M.U. GUlgec, Elastic-plastic stress analysis in a long functionally graded solid cylinder with fixed ends subjected to uniform heat generation, Int. J. Eng. Sci., 49(10) (2011) 1047-1061.
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[15] A.R. Khorshidvand, M. Javadi, Deformation and stresses analysis in FG rotating hollow disk and cylinder subjected to thermal and mechanical load, App. Mech. Mater., 187 (2012) 68-73.
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[16] M. Ghannad, G.H. Rahimi, M. Zamani Nejad, Elastic analysis of pressurized thick cylindrical shells with variable thickness made of functionally graded materials, Compos. Part B: Eng., 45(1) (2013) 383-396.
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[17] M. Zamani Nejad, A. Rastgoo, A. Hadi, Effect of exponentially-varying properties on displacements and stresses in pressurized functionally graded thick spherical shells with using iterative technique, J. Solid. Mech., 6(4) (2014) 366-377.
17
[18] P. Fatehi, M. Zamani Nejad, Effects of material gradients on onset of yield in FGM rotating thick cylindrical shell, Int. J. Appl. Mech., 6(4) (2014) 1-20.
18
[19] M. Zamani Nejad, M. Gharibi, Effect of material gradient on stresses of thick FGM spherical pressure vessels with exponentially-varying properties, J. Adv. Mater. Process., 2(3) (2014) 39-46.
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[20] M. Jabbari, M. Zamani Nejad, M. Ghannad, Effect of material gradient on stresses of FGM rotating thick-walled cylindrical pressure vessel with longitudinal variation of properties under nonuniform internal and external pressure, J. Adv. Mater. Process., 4(2) (2016) 3-20.
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[21] M. Arefi, R. Koohi Faegh, A. Loghman, The effect of axially variable thermal and mechanical loads on the 2D thermoelastic response of FG cylindrical shell, J. Therm. Stresses., 39(12) (2016) 1539-1559.
21
[22] R. Singh, L. Sondhi, A. Kumar Thawait, Stress and deformation analysis of rotating cylindrical pressure vessel of functionally graded material modeled by mori-tanaka scheme, J. Exp. Appl. Mech., 8(3)(2017) 1-7.
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[23] N. Habibi, S. Asadi, R. Moradikhah, Evaluation of SIF in FGM thick-walled cylindrical vessel, J. Stress Anal., 2(1) (2017) 57-68.
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[24] M. Jabbari, M. Zamani Nejad, M. Ghannad, Stress analysis of rotating thick truncated conical shells with variable thickness under mechanical and thermal loads, J. Solid Mech., 9(1) (2017) 100-114.
24
[25] R. Hetnarski B., M.R. Eslami, Thermal StressesAdvanced Theory and Applications, Springer Publisher, (2009).
25
[26] T. Myint-U, L. Debnath, Linear Partial Differential Equations for Scientists and Engineers, Birkhauser, Boston Publisher, (2007).
26
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Assessing Reliability of Bending of Concrete Beams Exposed to Freeze-thaw Conditions Based on Compressive Stress Limit Reduction
For existing reinforced concrete structures exposed to freeze-thaw conditions, there is an increasing engineering concernover their remaining safety. This paper presents a novel experimental-theoretical stochastic model for evaluating the reliability of concrete structures subjected to freeze-thaw conditions based on stress limit reduction. Reliability theory and experimental works provide the basis for the model development. Water cement ratio, air content, and number of freeze-thaw cycles are considered as the model variables. Compressive stress limit reduction in freeze-thaw conditions was treated as a stochastic variable. The effectiveness of the proposed model was evaluated using an example concrete structure element. The paper demonstrates that after, for example, 10 years experiencing FT cycles in a cold city; the reliability of the example concrete beam reduces to 52.5 percent for −10◦C concrete freezing temperature. It was found that the results of the proposed method are accurate compared to the literature. It was also found that the results of the proposed method are in good agreement with those obtained based on concrete’s non-destructive tests.
https://jrstan.basu.ac.ir/article_2672_822f3385724c5c67d12143a40a3f3d32.pdf
2019-03-01
83
93
10.22084/jrstan.2019.17989.1075
Reliability
Freeze-thaw cycles
Stress limit
Concrete
Stochastic model
Compression
S.M.
Hosseinian
s.hosseinian@basu.ac.ir
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
F.
Bahmani
foad.bahmani@gmail.com
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.
AUTHOR
[1] T. Cho, Prediction of cyclic freeze-thaw damage in concrete structures based on response surface method, Construct, Build. Mater., 21(12) (2007) 2031-2040.
1
[2] Z.Y. Zhou, M. Sun, Stochastic damage model of concrete during freeze-thaw process, Adv. Mater. Res., 450-451 (2012) 102-109.
2
[3] G. Fagerlund, A Service Life Model for Internal Frost Damage in Concrete, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund Publisher, (2004).
3
[4] X. Luo, J. Wei, Sharp degradation point of concrete under freezing-thawing cycles, Concrete, 13(11) (2005) 14-16.
4
[5] J.J. Valenza, G.W. Scherer, A review of salt scaling: I. Phenomenology, Cem. Concr. Res., 37(7) (2007) 1007-1021.
5
[6] M. Pigeon, R. Pleau, Durability of Concrete in Cold Climates, CRC Press, (1995).
6
[7] V. Penttala, Surface and internal deterioration of concrete due to saline and non-saline freeze-thaw loads, Cem. Concr. Res., 36(5) (2006) 921-928.
7
[8] M. Nili, A. Azarioon, S.M. Hosseinian, Novel internal-deterioration model of concrete exposed to freeze-thaw cycles, J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 29(9) (2017) 0401732-1-11.
8
[9] S.W. Tang, Y. Yao, C. Andrade, Z.J. Li, Recent durability studies on concrete structure, Cem. Concr. Res., 78(Part A) (2015) 143-154.
9
[10] J. Wawrzenczyk, A. Molendowska, Evaluation of concrete resistance to freeze-thaw based on probabilistic analysis of damage, Procedia Eng., 193 (2017) 35-41.
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[11] W. Ashraf, M.A. Glinicki, J. Olek, Statistical analysis and probabilistic design approach for freeze-thaw performance of ordinary Portland cement concrete, J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 30(11), (2018) 04018294-1-10.
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[12] S.H. Smith, K.E. Kurtis, I. Tien, Probabilistic evaluation of concrete freeze-thaw design guidance, Mater. Struct., 51: 124(5) (2018) 1-14.
12
[13] A. Duan, Y. Tian, J.G. Dai, W.L. Jin, A stochastic damage model for evaluating the internal deterioration of concrete due to freeze-thaw action, Mater. Struct., 47(6) (2014) 1025-1039.
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[14] G. Bumanis, L. Dembovska, A. Korjakins, D. Bajare, Applicability of freeze-thaw resistance testing methods for high strength concrete at extreme-52.5◦C and standard-18◦C testing conditions, Case Stud. Constr. Mater., 8 (2018) 139-149.
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[15] G. Fagerlund, Service life with regard to frost attack- a probabilistic approach, In: Lacasse MA, Vanier DJ (eds) Proceedings of the Eighth International conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components, Vancouver, (1999) 1268-1277.
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[16] W. Jun, W. Xing-hao, Z. Xiao-long, A damage model of concrete under freeze-thaw cycles, J. Wuhan Univ. Technol. Mater., 18(3) (2003) 40-42.
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[17] M.H. Liu, Y.F. Wang, Damage constitutive model of fly ash concrete under freeze-thaw cycles, J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 24(9) (2012) 1165-1174.
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[18] H.S. Shang, Y.P. Song, Experimental study of strength and deformation of plain concrete under biaxial compression after freezing and thawing cycles, Cem. Concr. Res., 36(10) (2006) 1857-1864.
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38
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Damage Identification in Large-scale Double-layer Truss Structures Via a Two-stage Approach
In this study, a two-stage damage identification approach based on modal flexibility differences and whale optimization algorithm (WOA) was applied to localize and quantify damages in large-scale double-layer truss structures. In first stage, damage locating vector (DLV) method using EDS (exponential decreased stress) was employed to find the real damaged elements of structure; then, WOA algorithm was used to determine the severity of suspected damaged elements obtained from the first stage. To evaluate the reliability of the proposed approach, two large-scale double-layer truss structures were studied. Furthermore, to assess the effect of noise on the accuracy of damage detection, the article compares the results of EDS with NCE. Calculation results demonstrate that the combination of DLV method using EDS and WOA algorithm provides an effective tool to carefully determine the location and the severity of structural damages in noisy condition directly. Moreover, the approach determines damages even though there are the low number of used mode shapes and a high number of structural elements.
https://jrstan.basu.ac.ir/article_2673_33850fd084090cc8f696ebce063e1189.pdf
2019-03-01
95
107
10.22084/jrstan.2019.18031.1076
Damage identification
Whale optimization algorithm
Damage locating vector
Large-scale double-layer trusses Two-stage approach
Exponential decreased stress
S.R.
Hoseini Vaez
hoseinivaez@qom.ac.ir
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Qom, Qom, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
N.
Fallah
nfallah@stu.qom.ac.ir
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Qom, Qom, Iran
AUTHOR
A.
Mohammadzadeh
mohamma9@myumanitoba.ca
3
Department of Civil Engineering, EITC, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
AUTHOR
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36
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Using Topology Optimization to Reduce Stress Concentration Factor in a Plate with a Hole
This paper focuses on reducing stress concentration in a plate with a hole. For this purpose, a novel Reliever Topological Material Elimination (RTME) approach was introduced which uses the topology optimization technique to specify the best areas to remove material in order to refine flow of stress and reduce the Stress Concentration Factor (SCF), consequently. Using the Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization (SIMP) method, topology optimization was formulated. Three major elimination areas were determined from material elimination patterns observed in topology optimization. Two possible RTME cases were proposed numerically. To evaluate the efficiency of the method, finite element analyses were conducted for one previous technique and the results werediscussed. In addition, the results of finite element analysis were validated by some experimental tests. According to the final results, RTME approach gives up to 35.5% stress reduction, 44% SCF mitigation, and decrease about 28% of the initial volume. In comparison with the previous technique, using RTME is more effective in decreasing the SCF and weight of the plate, simultaneously.
https://jrstan.basu.ac.ir/article_2674_b1777791e50dcf6e63955057e4e3b2d8.pdf
2019-03-01
109
116
10.22084/jrstan.2019.18177.1081
Stress concentration factor
Topology optimization
SIMP method
S.
Karimi
j_jne@yahoo.com
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran.
AUTHOR
J.
Jafari Fesharaki
jjafari.f@gmail.com
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
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